Queen or Worker
Scientific Beekeeping
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Chemical Communication in the Honey Bee Society.
HYPOPHARYNGEAL GLAND (HPG)
The hypopharangeal glands (HPG)are also found in the head under the 'forehead' or frons above the brain. The individual oval bodies are white and are set either side of a central tube. If dissecting the head of the bee this glands stretched out are longer than the bee measuring about 3cm. The secretion is clear and contains protein, fats and minerals. The outlets are into ducts from the right and left HPGs onto either side of the hypopharyngeal plate where the mouth meets the pharynx.

In queen honey bees (and drones) the HPG is vestigial (Snodgrass 1956)
The inhibiting effect of the queen bee (Apis mellifera L.) foot-print pheromone on the construction of swarming queen cups. Lensky & Slabezki, 1981
Morphology of the Dufour gland within the honey bee sting gland complex1. Martin et al 2004
Dufour's gland secretion of the queen honeybee (Apis mellifera): an egg discriminator pheromone or a queen signal? Katzav 2001
"Stress Pheromone from "Koschewnikow" Glands of the Queen Bees: Behavioural, Structural and Chemical Study"
Lensky et al 1991
A dietary phytochemical alters caste-associated gene expression in honey bees. Mao et al, 2015
The decision of whether a female egg will become a queen or a worker depends largely on what it is feed during the larval stage.

After 3 days the queen is fed exclusively royal jelly and no pollen or honey as is fed to the worker larvae.

Royal jelly, however, has no detectable phenolic acids
Mandibular Gland Volatiles and Their Ontogenetic Patterns in Queen Honey Bees, Apis mellifera carnica. Franck, et al 1997, abstract only