Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV)
KBV was first identified in 1974. It is a member of the dicistroviridae family, order Picornavirales and has many similarities with Acute Bee Paralysis Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus.

KBV is considered the most virulent honey-bee infecting of viruses. Experimentally when inoculated into the haemolymph of honey bees death can occur within three days (de Miranda et al, 2012). It infects the pupae

It commonly exists covertly in a colony. A theory is that horizontal transmission of the virus between crowded live bees is via the cytoplasm of broken cuticular hairs. Vertical transmission is possible through feeding of larvae.

Clinical signs of the virus are shivering bees and dead bees at the entrance to the hive similar to Acute Bee Paralysis Virus. It can be seen in the pupae where the larvae have been infected.

An effective varroa integrated pest management programme is essential to help stop the spread of viruses such as KBV. KBV has been found very rarely in the UK
The role of varroa mites in infections of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) in honey bees
Scientific Beekeeping